Agarwal is professor at the Texas A&M U.. He was educated at Banaras Hindu U., India, and the U. of Rochester where he obtained his PhD in 1969. He also holds the regents professorship and Noble Foundation chair at the Oklahoma State U. His previous positions include dist. scientist and director of the Physical Res. Lab. in Ahmedabad; Indian Natl. Science Acad. Albert Einstein research professor; and professor (1977-95), School of Physics, U. of Hyderabad. His awards include Bhatnagar Award; Max Born Award of the Optical Soc. of America; GD Birla award; RD Birla award; Humboldt Research award, Eminent Faculty award and TWAS Physics Prize. His fellowships include: The 3 science academies of India; American Physical Soc.; Optical Soc. of America; and the Royal Society, UK. He is also the recipient of honorary doctorates.