Bhattacharyya is presently a professor at the Indian Institute of Science Education & Research (IISER) Bhopal. He obtained his PhD in 1984 at Calcutta University. After postdoctoral work at Columbia and Notre Dame, he joined the faculty of IACS in 1987. His main interest is in femtosecond dynamics in nano-confined systems which include biological assemblies. His most important discovery is the ultraslow nature of biological water. He is a fellow of all of the national science academies of India, and is a senior editor of The Journal of Physical Chemistry. He received the Bhatnagar Prize (CSIR, India) in 1997 and the TWAS Prize in 2007.