Gadagkar is president, Indian Natl. Sc. Acad. (INSA); prof., Centre for Ecol. Scs., Ind. Inst. of Sc.(IISc); chairman, Centre for Contemp. Studies (IISc); hon. prof., Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Adv. Sci. Res., Bangalore; Ind. Inst. of Sci. Eductn. and Res. (IISER), Kolkata; IISER, Mohali; chairman, Adv. Brd, Council of Sci. and Ind. Res. (CSIR); INSA SN Bose Res. prof.; non-resid. perm. fellow, Wissenschaftskolleg, Berlin. His awards include: TWAS Award in Biology; Yg Associateship, Ind. Acad. of Scs (IAS); INSA Medal for Yg Scientists; SS Bhatnagar Prize; BM Birla Sci. Prize; Homi Bhabha Fell.; BP Pal Natl. Envrnmnt. Fell., JC Bose Natl. Fell.; 2014 AV Rama Rao Tech. Award, CSIR; Cross of the Order of Merit, Germany. He is a fellow of IAS; INSA; Natl. Acad. of Scs.; for. assoc., Natl. Acad. of Scs., USA; member, German Natl. Acad. of Scs. Leopoldina, 2012, Intl. Council for Sc. (ICSU).