Ramos is recognized for his studies based on modern plate tectonic concepts, concerning the tectonic evolution of the South American basement and the Andes, in particular for his research in structural geology and tectonics. He is emeritus professor in the Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales at the Universidad de Buenos Aires, and researcher of the Instituto de Estudios Andinos of UBA-CONICET. He is an honorary member of the Geological Society of America and the Asociacion Geologica Argentina and member of the Academia Nacional de Ciencias of Argentina, Chile, Brazil and of the United States of America. He is also a member of many editorial boards of international journals and has received several national and international scientific awards.
He has been working in topics like flat-slab subduction, collision of aseismic and seismic ridges in the Andes, as well as continental growth of South America. His major publications are related to the Andes.