Mashelkar is National Research Professor, Chairman of India’s National Innovation Foundation and President of the Global Research Alliance. He was previously President of the Indian National Science Academy and Director General of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research of India. He has received over 50 awards, including the three highest civilian honour of Padmashri (1991), Padmabhushan (2000), Padmavibhushan (2014) and honorary doctorates from 34 universities from around the world. He is Fellow of Royal Society, Fellow of Royal Academy of Engineering, UK; Foreign Associate of US National Academy of Science and US National Academy of Engineering and Associate Foreign Member, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, as also foreign Fellow of The Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering (ATSE).
TWAS Medal Lecture, 2005.