Sanyal is a Professor and former Director at the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (SINP). He obtained his PhD from University of Bombay in 1987 working at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. He worked in Brookhaven National Laboratory as Research Associate. He has served in various capacities at National and International bodies, like Co-Chairperson of the India-Japan Science Council (2014-Present), Member, Scientific Advisory Committee to the Cabinet, Government of India 2010-Present, President, Indian Physics Associations and Indian Physical Society (2011-2014). Sanyal is Fellow of all the three Indian science academies. Sanyal has made significant contributions in understanding of structure-property relationship of the nanomaterials that produce novel properties due to confinement-induced ordering. Particularly, he has done pioneering work in synchrotron x-ray scattering techniques.